Two-Level Games of International Environmental NGOs in China

Note from the Digital Editor: In order to highlight the high-level of research and scholarship from the authors who have published in the William & Mary Policy Review’s peer-reviewed print journal, we have reproduced the abstracts from Volume 3, Issue 2 along with a link to an electronic copy of the full form of the piece. 

(image by Vin Crosbie)

Acknowledging profound environmental and social consequences tied to three decades of rapid economic growth, Beijing increasingly encourages non-governmental organizations (NGOs) to assist in relatively noncontroversial development-related fields, such as environmental protection. Attention to this emerging Chinese civil society is growing, especially literature with a focus on local or indigenous Chinese NGOs and the unique breed of government-organized NGOs (GONGOs) within China. Little work, though, exists when it comes to analyzing the role of international environmental NGOs within China. This is a noted deficiency, particularly considering Robert Putnam’s two-level games where forces at both the domestic and international level shape government policy. Within this context, our analysis examines international NGOs but argues they are most effective when they target not the Chinese state but rather the general public—especially domestic NGOs.

Find the full version of this article in PDF form here.

Dr. Michael Gunter is a Cornell Distinguished Professor at Rollins College in Winter Park, FL, USA, where he also directs the Rollins International Relations Program. Ariane Rosen is a Master of Philosophy student in international relations at the University of Cambridge.

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